thousand miles, and twenty additional days steaming, via the Panama Canal, provided that was completed; and saving a distance of twenty-four thousand miles, via Cape Horn, and the average economy of one hundred and twenty days sail, steaming such a distance being too expensive. It would save a four months' travel the present route across the country from steam navigation of the Missouri waters to Oregon.6
This short and expeditious route to the growing, and soon to be the important settlement of Oregon, and, at present, many other interests in the Pacific in the event of the acquisition of this country by the United States, would be the smallest reasons for the accomplishment of this route.
The most desirable portion of this continent lies between the 28th and 42d degrees of north latitude upon the Pacific. It presents more than a thousand miles of seacoast, with the important ports of Guaymas, San Diego, San Gabriel, Monterey, San Francisco, and many others, with a soil and climate of unsurpassed capability for grazing and agriculture, and a mineral wealth supposed to be equal, if not superior, to any in the world. This vast country of more than one million of square miles, lying due west of the settled portion of the United States, between the frozen regions of the north and the vertical  sun of the south, between the gentle influences of the Pacific Ocean and the great backbone of the continent, capable of giving wealth and happiness to a hundred millions of souls, is now in possession of roaming tribes of unhoused Indians, and a few settlements of less than two hundred thousand Mexican subjects.*
If Oregon is important to the United States, this country is a thousand times more so. The extreme northern lines of the states of Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Rhode Island only reach to the 42d degree of north latitude: that latitude cuts in two the states of Massachusetts and New-York, and Lake Erie and Michigan, while the 28th degree is north of the United States settlements in Florida, and nearly three degrees north of Texas, at the mouth of the Rio Grande. While it is due to the United States that she should not permit this important country to fall into European hands, it is equally due to her that she should possess it by any and every means necessary thereto.
Let the United States apply, if necessary, the usufruct doctrine of her possession of this country, which Old England and Old Spain practised towards the aborigines upon the discovery of this continent - a doctrine of common sense and sound reason - of  human necessity and justice. If the Author of the universe intended the earth for the support of the few, to the exclusion of the greater number, the reverse of this doctrine is true, and then it is right and proper that a very few should hold this country, of which they can make no adequate use, to the exclusion of many millions in other portions of the earth,
* It will be perceived that I have spoken in round numbers of the population of this country. Both Forbes and Mayer make the population much less, but their remarks are applicable to Upper California, while mine extend to the 28th degree of north latitude.