A Look Inside Picasso's War Images
by Elizabeth Francesconi
Picasso said in 1944, after joining of the French Communist Party, “Painting is not meant for decorating apartments. It is an instrument of active and defensive war against the enemy.” Many of Picasso’s works throughout his life appear to abandon current events except in times of extreme turmoil. However, certain incidents that pertain to his Spanish heritage, like the Spanish Civil War, were more likely to be seen in his works at that time. In his later works, Picasso did not deliberately focus on creating a war subject; instead, the figures used in his propagandistic works escaped into his chosen medium as the memories of war faded into the past. Picasso is a native of Spain and even though he left to live in Paris in 1904, he never lost his ties to his heritage and the Spanish population.
Picasso’s Dream and Lie of Franco (Figure 1) is a pair of prints of which the Meadows Museum Collection owns six working proofs. Picasso etched these plates as a response to the Spanish Civil War during the late 1930s. These images of Franco reflect Picasso’s and other Spaniards’ political views regarding the war. Though he was living in Paris at the time of the Civil War, Picasso was able to follow the current events through newspapers. The Dream and Lie of Franco was not the only political work to be completed during his life, however. By viewing this work and Picasso’s other political works, such as Guernica, in the context of the political history of Spain, I will show that Picasso’s Dream and Lie of Franco reflects the emotions of the Spanish people during the Spanish Civil War, along with a response that can be applied to new situations of political unrest as they are discovered in the future.
It is important to explore the events of Franco and the Spanish Civil War before examining Picasso’s Dream and Lie of Franco. In 1930, dictator General Primo de Rivera and his monarchy fell, forcing King Alfonso XIII into exile. The new Republic government that was created as a result promised to create a modern society for the farmers in Spain. The agricultural workers had only known of primitive agriculture techniques performed on poor land during the time of the monarchy. In order to improve these work conditions, the government took the responsibility upon themselves to create a modern democratic society. Nevertheless, the conservative property owners viewed the new Republic government’s act of giving land to those less fortunate as a personal attack. The Republic’s attempt to pull religion out of secondary education was also seen by the conservatives as an attempt to remove Christianity from the entire country.
In 1934, the Nationalist party and conservatives called on General Francisco Franco. Throughout his war tactics, Franco tried to establish a “totalitarian dictatorship” during the Civil War by drawing power away from the population and directing it towards himself as the absolute authority, like the Nazis in Germany and the Fascists in Italy. The ideas of the Spanish people and the Popular Front did not matter to leaders like Franco. Therefore, Franco was willing to gain control of Spain, no matter what the destruction. Along with the help of military forces, Franco and his allies, the Nationalist party, subdued the Socialist and Communist people of Spain when they tried to rebel against their poor work conditions. By 1936, however, the Popular Front, consisting of the Spanish people, was able to regain power and won the political election in February that same year.
The Popular Front wanted to restore Spain to a healthy sovereignty by creating a central government, maintaining a regular army, and calling on the troops set aside for retreats. The conservatives and the Nationalists did not like this plan, however, and soon the Spanish Army officers, including Franco, who had been recently repositioned at the Canary Islands, began to collaborate on a plan to overthrow the Popular Front. On October 1, 1936, Franco became recognized as the leader of the Nationalists, which helped him to later achieve his goal of conquering the present government and then rebuilding it. The Nationalists brought a rebellion onto the innocent people of Spain, including women and children, who were killed as a result of the many, gruesome, and devastating attacks. The war thus began, before Franco’s power was officially recognized, in July 1936 when Italian and Nazi allied forces to the Nationalists entered Spain. It then ended in April 1939 as a result of the Popular Front’s defeat in Madrid.
Among the various artists and intellectuals in Paris at the time of the Spanish Civil War, there was a strong motivation to defend the Spanish Republic against Franco even if it meant death in exchange for their beliefs. Picasso, for the first time, took an interest in supporting the Spanish Republic during this time of political and cultural unrest. He was able to donate money along with necessities to those in need. In addition to aiding the Spanish people, he accepted an honorary directorship at the Prado Museum to oversee the shipment of the artworks housed there from Madrid to Valencia.
Picasso made the Dream and Lie of Franco, as a reaction to what was happening at home in Spain, while he was living in Paris, where he would stay until his death in 1973. Picasso’s weapon of choice, instead of joining the physical combat, was to create works of art to be viewed by the public as a type of propaganda for the Spanish Republic. His works also promoted the idea of rebelling against Franco by showing his destruction, as clearly depicted in his Dream and Lie of Franco prints. During May 1937, while creating his mural Guernica, Picasso made his political opinion clear to the world for the first time in his life in a response to General Millán Astray declaring, “Down with intelligence! Long live death!”:
The war in Spain is a war of reaction—against the people, against liberty. My whole life as an artist has been a continual struggle against reaction, and the death of art…. In all my recent work, I am expressing my horror of the military caste, which is now plunging Spain into an ocean of misery and death.
Picasso was mainly concerned with breaking an image down and then recreating it into a simple form to portray subject with the correct emotional connotations for his compositions. He could depict his own opinions while allowing the viewer space to draw their own conclusions. He did not follow a strict outline of traditional war imagery, however, making his depictions able to be universally applied to different times of political unrest. Through using basic forms that everyone can recognize, he tailored the meaning to each individual. Picasso was able to take a simple form and change it into a figure full of meaning for everyone.
In January 1937, Picasso was asked by the Cultural Delegate to the Spanish Embassy in Paris to create a mural-sized response to the Spanish Civil War for the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris World Fair. Before he was asked to depict his political thoughts, Picasso was already recording his opinions in his art. It then became apparent that continuous exposure of the culture and the knowledge of Spain was important to this Spanish artist living in Paris.
During January 8th and 9th, he etched the linear forms of the first fourteen scenes in the first proofs of both the first and second plates. These first portrayals show a the basic reaction Picasso had towards Franco. Then, on May 25th, after working with the idea of light and dark tones in Guernica, he added aquatint to those frames to enhance the figures and give them weight on the surface. Picasso was able to add life to his two-dimensional figures on the second proof of the first plate and the second and third proofs of the second plate. He also added hatching to some figures and outlined many objects with the aquatint for added emphasis. The more detailed images of the second plate became more grotesque through the process of adding color and then altering the shades through burnishing.
Picasso chose to use sugar-lift aquatint on most of his prints. This technique requires first placing a solution of sugar, water, and ink directly on the etched plate, leaving a powdery coating of aquatint. It is then covered with an asphalt varnish and left to dry. As the plate is washed, the sugar lifts off of the plate. After this granulated surface is formed, the plate is then “bitten” with acid to create the desired tones. This process was only done once in Picasso’s first plate, while the second plate took more work to achieve the desired result. Along the bottom edge of each proof, Picasso tested the values in order to achieve the correct tone for the figures. The second aquatint stage of the last plate had some color burnished away to achieve the desired play of light, dark, and shadows. The features thus became more accentuated, making the bull and Franco more grotesque with the addition of more details than in the first plate where only one process of aquatint was used to achieve a single tone.
On June 7th, after adding shading and volume to his etchings through adding and burnishing aquatint from the plates, Picasso finally finished the project he had started nearly half a year previously with the addition of the four scenes that relate to his mural Guernica, which he painted in May 1937. These frames only are seen in the final proof of the second plate. Here, female figures are seen protecting their young and reaching towards the sky with a silent yell using only etched linear forms, and no additional shading from aquatint. The frames providing a propagandistic message against Franco and his supporters were then complete and ready for reproduction for the World Fair as individual postcards.
Though they were originally going to be sold strictly as separate postcards, it seemed more meaningful to the people involved in the World Fair to sell them as a set, uncut, with a poem that Picasso wrote at the completion of the first fourteen scenes in January. This poem, which relates to the images and provides a deeper look into the artist’s mind, was reproduced in Picasso’s own handwriting with an additional typed English translation (Appendix A).
The prints in the Meadows Museum are read by many from right to left, with the first scene in the upper right corner, because Picasso did not reverse his drawings before etching the series into the plate. The original idea was for each frame to be sold separately; therefore, the correct order for the scenes was never specified. However, Franco, depicted in most of the scenes, is continuously and comically depicted rebelling against Spain and her heritage.
The first scene shows Franco riding a hurt horse into a battle wearing a crown suggesting power or as Anthony Blunt says, “monarchy,” which Franco was trying to achieve. He also carries a sword like a soldier and a banner containing the Virgin Mary, an image that could have been seen in various Spanish Catholic churches. All of these attributes show that Franco and the Nationalists were not alone in the fight against the Spanish Republic but were indeed backed by large organizations, such as the Catholic Church. Because Franco’s acts were focused toward creating absolute rule with the support of the Church, Picasso displayed a background of how the opposition was viewed by the Republic at the onset of the etchings and the war.
The sun, placed in the upper right corner, behind Franco, appears to be smiling at its onlookers and oblivious to what is soon to come. Because a sun draws light into the world, it may represent the Spanish Republic that does not yet know about the turmoil it will soon face as the Civil War continues. Furthermore, it could represent the good and the truth of the innocent Spanish population that will soon have havoc released into their lives. Similarly, in Picasso’s Guernica, he portrays a central sun with a light bulb. The rays of the sun are directed toward the horse’s head to shed light onto its surrounding world of chaos.
In the second scene, the same Franco is depicted with the sword and the banner, but he is now walking a tightrope. He lacks the horse in this frame, but gains large genitalia that suggests the idea of strong military forces. According to Patricia Failing, the image uses signs of sexual prowess as a symbol of military might, just as Queipo del Llano did in his broadcasts that would often boast about the sexual powers of the Legionnaires and Regulares. Because his men were proving to be victorious, he started believing that they were the strongest force.
Another, more generalized, interpretation is described by Blunt. He claims that the idea of the enlarged genitalia can be drawn back to ancient Roman lamps. Though this interpretation includes the same idea of manliness, Failing’s interpretation appears more realistic. Picasso may have viewed ancient Roman artifacts when learning his artistic skills, but the main theme throughout the Dream and Lie of Franco prints is solely a reflection on the current events.
The next print reveals Picasso’s reliance on the work of another artist who used his works for propaganda in opposing a political power. Picasso was able to refer back to Francisco de Goya’s prints. These artists are both coincidentally lived in France and were of Spanish decent. When he was perfecting his printing process, Picasso may have viewed the prints Goya made of bullfights, which soon proved to be a common point of interest. Picasso also might have come into contact with Goya’s prints when learning the etching and aquatint process, because one often looks at examples to try to replicate a style. One potential influence for Picasso’s responses to the war was Goya’s The Disasters of War, which were completed from 1810 to 1820. Though comprised as a reaction to a different war, one of Spain against Napoleon and the French, the Spanish heritage and people stayed the same in their fight against a foreign power trying to overthrow the people’s government.
Picasso’s depiction of Franco walking a tightrope in the second frame resembles a specific scene in Goya’s Disasters series entitled When Will the Rope Break (Figure 2), giving evidence of his exposure to Goya’s works. Goya had placed a religious figure with a high status in the Church on a fraying, suspended rope. Under the leader, he added a crowd that appears to be shouting at and angry with the man on the rope. The liberals during Spanish Civil War opposed the power of the Church. However, Goya, unlike Picasso, did not openly pick a side in the war against Napoleon and the French, though his stance was often clearly depicted as supporting the Spanish people as they experienced the horrors of war.
Next, the third frame in Picasso’s prints shows Franco attacking a classical bust while wearing a bishop’s miter, once again drawing reference to the Church. Failing views this action as an attack against the arts, just as the Prado Museum experienced air raids ordered by Franco during the Spanish Civil War. Because many intellectuals fought against Franco through their art, it is possible that Franco viewed the arts as an enemy. Art shows the ideas within a culture, and here, the people opposed Franco.
The fourth scene portrays a mustached Franco in a traditional female Spanish dress with a destroyed town in the background. She is portrayed with a comb in her hair and a mantilla draped over her shoulders and head that were worn by many traditional Spanish women. Spain’s people were trying to preserve their government without falling under a new dictatorship. The victims that Picasso focuses on later in Dream and Lie of Franco to show the pain and agony of the Spanish Republic are women and children, not men. Many targets for Franco, and his allies the Germans, were of no military significance, such as the women and the children. Here, the female figure is triumphantly walking away from the recently destroyed village. Like Franco, she also holds an object containing an image of the Virgin, a fan, relating her to the Catholic Church that supports Franco and his raids to gain control of Spain.
In the following scene, Franco returns to his original masculine character with a crown and a sword, but now he is lacking the banner with the Madonna. In this frame, a bull is attacking Franco, thus, according to Vincente Marrero, representing the protest of the Spanish Republic. The bull, like the Spanish Republic, did not give up the fight for what they believed because of one defeat, otherwise the war would have been concluded sooner.
This middle frame is the first event to display great force and energy, showing the hope for a Republic victory. All of the preceding frames resemble a still photograph because of the suspension of time and the freezing of images in space. This frame, however, shows the two major forces in the war attacking each other with great force, neither bending to accommodate the other. Both figures are leaning towards each other in the middle of the frame, as though locked in a battle of strength, to push their opponent out of the scene.
The altar in the next scene directly ties it to the Catholic Church that supports Franco. He is depicted kneeling in front of the altar. Oddly, the monstrance that is supposed to be displaying the host of Christ is seen holding money instead. Enclosing Franco in the space is a barbed wire committing him to the Catholic Religion. In the next scene, the altar soon explodes and Franco has nowhere to go because of the barbed wire encircling him. He is shown thrown across the barbed wire and injured with his insides spilling into the enclosed space. He is left with only his banner and a weapon to anchor him inside the protection of the Catholic Church. The frogs and the snakes that are emerging from the polyp body suggest the Spanish Republic’s perception of Franco as a vile creature.
Franco, here, appears as a hypocrite, however, since the Catholic Church supports his campaign. Instead of praying to God, he prays to an altar made of money, wanting only more power. Franc had become trapped in his action of committing one of the seven deadly sins—greed. He was hungry for power during the war and was ready to take any action to promote his authority, such as using German bombing techniques to clear out cities of no military purpose. Nevertheless, he is shown once again with his banner containing the image of the Virgin centrally planted in an upright position, alluding to the strong, indestructible power of the Catholic Church.
Next, Franco is seen striking a winged horse with the stem of the banner, which still contains the image of the Virgin, while riding it. Often, Picasso chooses mythology to depict social events and ideas that symbolize tragedy. In Greek antiquity, a god-like figure was often shown riding Pegasus, such as the hero Bellerophon who killed a monster with the help of this winged creature. Here, Franco is attempting to overcome his Spanish peers and become their dictator. Picasso often shows a horse to represent the Spanish people, for example in Guernica when the horse is shown suffering in the same way as the surrounding human figures. A force, the Nationalists in this case, is trying to overthrow this innocent creature that could be traced back to their own heritage.
The ninth and final scene on the first plate shows Franco riding a pig instead of a horse, which resembles the character of Don Quixote. This character has a wild imagination and he believes himself to be on a strong horse, the opposite of reality, and about to attack opposing windmills that are viewed by Don Quixote as giants. Franco is depicted on his pig, not a noble steed, and about to attack a sun representing truth and light amidst the chaos, instead of giants. The banner that he has been carrying throughout the etching and used to attack Pegasus is now raised and aimed at the sun in the upper left corner. This sun is face-less, unlike the one seen in the first scene. The once oblivious sun is now preparing for an attack in a tilted attempt to protect its truth from inevitable destruction.
The second plate begins using the same ideas in which the first was created, with Franco depicted accompanying an injured horse. Consequently, the beginning scene is linked to the bottom row on the first plate and Franco’s struggle with Pegasus, who is now defeated. Once the horse dies, not from an attack by the bull, but from a massacre by Franco in this case, its head is shown stretching out as if it were trying to fly away and escape the death that will soon come. Franco has now defeated the winged horse and has planted his banner and as a sign of victory over his opponent.
The following scene shows an innocent, lifeless woman much unlike the polyp-woman depicted earlier in the series. This one is lying with her arms outstretched and a fixed gaze on the heavens. There is no action or energy in this frame, yet it relates to the people and targets that were destroyed by Franco and the Nationalists. She was left behind without any protection and stripped of everything she knew. This scene is the first that lacks the polyp Franco; the viewer sees only his destruction.
Here again, Picasso seems to draw from his knowledge of Goya’s prints. The scene Will Truth Rise Again? (Figure 3) from Goya’s Disasters series includes the same female figure lying peacefully in the middle of the frame. Both women represent truth in the mist of war. Instead of showing the opposing power triumphing over the native people of Spain, both artists decide to depict the destruction done by the enemy and seen by their comrades.
The two peaceful figures in the next scene are intertwined seemingly in hope of protecting themselves. The horse is now depicted without wings and protecting the bearded figure that, according to Blunt, will later be used by Picasso to represent the artist who struggled during the war. These two figures are bracing themselves together for added strength in preparation for what is to come next, unlike the figure in the previous scene, who was defeated.
Soon, on the following row, a larger, more grotesque image of Franco returns, only to be confronted with a more ferocious bull that almost completely fills the vertical space of the frame. Franco still wears his crown, yet he appears to try to cover his face with one of his limbs as if he were scared of what is going to happen next. Even the strongest forces get defeated sometimes. This scene shows a glimmer of hope that Picasso maintains for a victory of the Republic.
The middle scene of the second plate corresponds to the middle scene of the first plate. The bull attacks the polyp again, representing the strong force of the Spanish. As a result, the insides of the polyp are spilled, showing the various animals that appear more gruesome than in the first plate, just as the hatred for Franco had grown among the Spanish people.
Throughout the first fourteen scenes, Picasso depicts a common relationship between the horse and the bull. The emphasis is that the bull represented is attacking the enemy, instead of portraying the adversary. Picasso said himself that both the bull and the horse are viewed individually as “an animal cruelly murdered” and therefore, a tragic and vulnerable figure.
Picasso chose the images of a bull and a horse to represent Spain because of his own heritage. According to Verna Curtis, the figures of the bull and horse relate back to the bullfights he would watch with his master while he was growing up. Picasso focused on making the viewer understand he was first Spanish, not Parisian. Though he lived outside of Spain for the majority of his life, he had not abandoned his heritage.
Throughout the Dream and Lie of Franco etchings, the horse is seen abused, and furthermore, Franco attacks and kills Pegasus. Wilhelm Boeck suggests that the bull personifies stability, while the horse is the victim. Unlike previous works by Picasso that show a horse being gored by a bull, the two figures work together in a theme opposing Franco. Picasso uses many of the same elements throughout his life that seemed to have changeable meanings to the artist and viewer. The bull in Dream and Lie of Franco represents the strength and force of Spain by firmly standing its ground. Consequently, the horse experiences all the pain that the Spanish people felt as a result of the destruction from the Spanish Civil War.
In Picasso’s Composition with Minotaur (Figure 4) completed in 1936, Picasso uses the bull and horse together on the same side. It shows two figures, a young man and an elder with a horse head separating them. They are standing up to a monster that had just brutally killed a Minotaur, which is part bull. Once they spot the dead victim, they stand ready to engage in a battle with the beaked creature even though they do not seem to be in close enough proximity to make any physical contact. The presence of good wanting to defeat evil mimics Picasso’s actions toward war and his opinions for expressing them. The group, ready to fight the beast, is taking a stand for what they believe in instead of just watching the tragedy continue. Picasso said it is the public, who is exposed to artworks in many mediums, that must determine the meanings behind the imagery used. Therefore, the true meaning of the horse and bull is for the viewer to decide in the context of their life.
The final four scenes are nothing like the original fourteen completed in January. These frames were completed on June 7th, six months after the original fourteen, and they all relate to the images seen in Picasso’s mural Guernica (Figure 5) that was on display at the Spanish Pavilion during the 1937 World Fair. Completed in May 1937, Guernica was Picasso’s response to the bombing of Guernica in which Franco used the Nazi method of Blitzkrieg to destroy the small Basque town.
Though written at the completion of the first fourteen scenes, the end of Picasso’s poem greatly relates to his concluding four scenes, which begins, “cries of children, cries of women, cries of birds, cries of flowers.” Picasso could not place all of the emotions that the Spanish people felt from the destruction into a picture. The last four scenes are made up of women who try to protect their young while gazing into the heavens and screaming silently, like those in Guernica surrounding the bull and horse. The women depicted in the plates, however, are seen individually in separate scenes. The technique, lacking the use of aquatint, also resembles Guernica, because both representations use solid tones with added lines to provide details, instead of exploring the use of different values through burnishing.
The meanings, in relation to the public, behind Dream and Lie of Franco changed as time progressed and more of the etchings were completed. The interpretations change as societies are exposed to more political unrest. Picasso took a stand against Franco and the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War, through creating a set of images that reflect his disgust. Every viewer can have a different explanation for the work, but Picasso allowed his ideas to spill onto the plate in support of the Popular Front and the fight against Franco.
DREAM AND LIE OF FRANCO
 Kristen Hoving Keen, “Picasso’s communist interlude: the murals of ‘War’ and ‘Peace,’” Burlington Magazine 122 (July 1980): 469.
 Michèle Richet, The Picasso Museum, Paris: Drawings, watercolors, gouaches, and pastels, Translated by Augusta Audubert (New York: H.M. Abrams, 1988), 337.
 Verna Posever Curtis and Selma Reuben Holo, La Tauromaquia: Goya, Picasso and the Bullfight (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1986), 70.
 Patricia Failing, “Picasso’s ‘Cries of Children…Cries of Stones,’” Art News 126, 7 (Sept 1977): 56.
 Raymond Carr, The Spanish Civil War: A History in Pictures (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1986), 7.
 Carr, 7.
 Ibid., 21.
 Ibid., 8.
 Ibid., 33.
 Ibid., 11
 Ibid., 17.
 Failing, 56.
 J.P. Fusi, Franco: A Biography (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1987), 19.
 Roland Penrose, Picasso: His Life and Work (New York: Schocken Books, 1962), 266.
 Failing, 56.
 Pierre Daix, Picasso: Life and Art (New York: Icon Editions, 1993), 251.
 Marilyn McCully, ed, A Picasso Anthology: Document, Criticism, Reminiscences (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), 194.
 Failing, 56.
 Failing, 55.
 Curtis, 72.
 Steven A. Nash, ed, Picasso and the War Years 1937-1945 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1998), 16.
 Penrose, 267.
 William Rubin, ed, Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980), 308.
 Failing, 55.
 Rubin, 308.
 Anthony Blunt, Picasso’s ‘Guernica’ (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 11.
 Aznar, 54.
 Failing, 58.
 Blunt, 11.
 Ibid., 11.
 Curtis, 69.
 Juliet Wilson Bareau, Goya’s Prints (London: British Museum Publications Ltd, 1981), 46.
 Ibid., 45.
 Ibid., 45.
 Failing, 58.
 Ibid., 58.
 Ibid., 56.
Vincente Marrero, Picasso and the Bull, Translated by Anthony Kerrigan (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1956), 55.
 Failing, 57.
 Blunt, 12.
 Failing, 56.
 Nash, 15.
 Nikolas Yalouris, Pegasus: The Art of the Legend (England: Westerham Press, 1975), XIII.
 Carla Gottlieb, “The Meaning of Bull and Horse in Guernica,” Art Journal 24 (Winter 1964): 107.
 Failing, 62.
 Miguel de Cervantes, The Adventures of Don Quixote de la Mancha, Translated by Tobias Smollett (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1986), 62.
 Failing, 62.
 Bareau, 59.
 Blunt, 12.
 Marrero, 57-58.
 Gottlieb, 109.
 Yayo Aznar, The Guernica, Translated by Almudena García Pellín (Spain: Edilupa Ediciones, 2004), 42.
 Curtis, 69-70.
 Wilhelm Boeck and Jaime Sabartés, Picasso (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1957), 231.
 Sidra Stich, “Picasso’s Art and Politics in 1936,” Arts Magazine 58 (October 1983): 115.
 Aznar, 9.
 Nash, 16.
 Fusi, 28.
 Garnet McCoy, “Letters from Spain 1936–1939,” Archives of American Art Journal 26 (1986): 17.
Aznar, Yayo. The Guernica. Translated by Almudena García Pellín. Spain: Edilupa Ediciones, 2004.
Bareau, Juliet Wilson. Goya’s Prints. London: British Museum Publications Ltd, 1981.
Blunt, Anthony. Picasso’s ‘Guernica’. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Boeck, Wilhelm, and Jaime Sabartés. Picasso. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1957.
Carr, Raymond. The Spanish Civil War: A History in Pictures. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1986.
Cervantes, Miguel de. The Adventures of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Translated by Tobias Smollett. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1986.
Curtis, Verna Posever, and Selma Reuben Holo. La Tauromaquia: Goya, Picasso and the Bullfight. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1986.
Daix, Pierre. Picasso: Life and Art. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
Failing, Patricia. “Picasso’s ‘Cries of Children…Cries of Stones.’” Art News 126, 7 (Sept 1977): 55-64.
Fusi, J.P. Franco: A Biography. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1987.
Gottlieb, Carla. “The Meaning of Bull and Horse in Guernica.” Art Journal 24 (Winter 1964): 106-112.
Keen, Kristen Hoving. “Picasso’s communist interlude: the murals of ‘War’ and ‘Peace.’” Burlington Magazine 122 (July 1980): 464-470.
McCoy, Garnet. “Letters from Spain 1936–1939.” Archives of American Art Journal 26 (1986): 2-20.
McCully, Marilyn, ed. A Picasso Anthology: Document, Criticism, Reminiscences. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Marrero, Vincente. Picasso and the Bull. Translated by Anthony Kerrigan. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1956.
Nash, Steven A., ed. Picasso and the War Years 1937-1945. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1998.
Penrose, Roland. Picasso: His Life and Work. New York: Schocken Books, 1962.
Richet, Michèle. The Picasso Museum, Paris: Drawings, watercolors, gouaches, and pastels. Translated by Augusta Audubert. New York: H.M. Abrams, 1988.
Rubin, William, ed. Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.
Stich, Sidra. “Picasso’s Art and Politics in 1936.” Arts Magazine 58 (October 1983): 113-118.
Yalouris, Nikolas. Pegasus: The Art of the Legend. England: Westerham Press, 1975.